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  7. Interpretation of Toyota Corolla...

[YesAuto Safety Technology] Today, the passive safety performance of a vehicle cannot be judged by the thickness of the iron sheet and the sound of the door. At a critical moment, the body can sacrifice itself, protect the occupants, pedestrians and other vehicles. To achieve this goal, the overall body structure design is crucial. In this regard, Toyota's GOA (Global Outstanding Assessment, meaning the world's top evaluation) body technology has always been a familiar body technology in the passive safety field, and the new generation of Corolla using the latest GOA technology was involved in the fourth batch of C-NCAP in 2014. Excellent results were also achieved in the test. Today, let us combine the facts of the crash test to analyze and interpret how the vehicle protects you when a collision occurs.

GOA body structure analysis

When a vehicle is hit by a frontal impact, the huge energy from the collision needs to be absorbed and dispersed. Therefore, the front of the vehicle must assume the role of energy absorption. At the same time, the energy that cannot be fully absorbed must be dispersed and transferred to other structures of the body to avoid energy concentration. A little bit causes greater structural damage, which is also the mainstream idea of the current body structure design.

If the front part of the vehicle needs to be sufficiently “soft” due to the need for energy absorption, then the structure of the member cabin must be “hard”. Because the structure of the passenger compartment is related to the living space of the driver and passengers, only by maintaining enough living space during a collision can the safety of the people in the car be guaranteed.

When the vehicle encounters a side collision, the space between the passenger and the vehicle body is very small due to the direct impact on the passenger compartment, so it is difficult to design energy absorption. In this case, we must first ensure the structural integrity of the passenger compartment. At the same time, energy is transmitted and distributed to the entire body through various beam-shaped components, and more body structure is used to “digest” the energy to better ensure the safety of the occupants in the vehicle.

Since the fuel tank of the vehicle is usually arranged at the rear of the vehicle chassis, when the vehicle is subjected to a strong rear impact, the protection of the fuel tank is also one of the key points of the structural design. Therefore, the energy absorption and energy transfer design of the rear structure of the vehicle body cannot be ignored either.

Driving a vehicle on the road is often jokingly called “iron-clad meat”. When a vehicle collides with a pedestrian, the pedestrian without any protection measures will directly face the car made of steel. The protection of pedestrians is very important.

In general, the purpose of the new Corolla's GOA body structure design is very clear: the front and rear parts of the vehicle absorb and disperse the energy of the impact to ensure the strength and space of the central passenger compartment. It should be said that this is currently the most mainstream passive safety concept. So is this concept effective in actual collisions? Let's take a look at the actual performance of Corolla in the C-NCAP crash test.

● Application of GOA body in C-NCAP test

-Frontal 100% rigid barrier collision test

Score: 15.54 points (86.33%)

100% frontal rigid barrier collision test Although the speed is not the highest, only 50km/h, because the barrier is a rigid material, it will not collapse. The vehicle will absorb all the collision energy by itself, and the reverse acceleration obtained by the vehicle is also Very large, so this test tests the overall energy absorption effect of the front of the vehicle and the restraint system of the vehicle.

-Frontal 40% deformable barrier impact test

Score: 16.84 points (93.56%)

The 40% variability barrier crash test has a higher speed (64km/h), and the body has fewer structures that directly absorb energy. Therefore, this crash test has higher requirements for the body structure. To pass the test smoothly, the front of the car body not only needs to absorb energy, but also to disperse the energy through a reasonable design to make up for the lack of contact area. At the same time, the structure of the passenger compartment needs to be strong enough to prevent structural deformation and intrusion from causing damage to the occupants.

-Side impact test

Score: 18 points (100%)

Corolla performed very well in the side impact test, and got full marks in all items, which also proved that its GOA body was very successful in the strength setting of the passenger compartment and the distributed transmission of energy. In addition, the safety air curtain of the top-mounted model also played a certain protective role.

-Whiplash test

Score: 4 points (100%)

The whiplash test mainly investigates whether the vehicle's seat can give the occupant's neck adequate protection when it is hit from the rear. Although this test is not to investigate the structural design of the car body, it is also an indispensable content in the passive safety indicators of the vehicle.

to sum up:

Security is always the topic of most concern. Today's automobile safety technology is all around people. Whether it is active safety or passive safety, the ultimate goal is to put people first and protect the lives of traffic participants. However, no matter how well-designed a vehicle is, it is necessary to drive safely and responsibly in order to protect the lives of oneself and others to the maximum, so as to enjoy the convenience and happiness that cars bring to our lives.