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[YesAuto Engine Technology] It’s the year-end inventory season again. Recently, the well-known American automobile magazine “Ward's Auto World” also early gave the list of the 2016 Ward Top Ten Engine Awards. Surprisingly, judging from this year's list, the turbocharged engine dominated the situation last year. The naturally aspirated engine won three places, forming a tripartite situation with the turbocharged engine and hybrid power system. Has the naturally aspirated engine regained the praise of the judges? Let's take a look at which engines have won awards together.

What is Ward's Top Ten Engine Awards?

The selection of the Ward Top Ten Engine Awards is organized by the American “Ward's AutoWorld” magazine. The editors of the magazine will comprehensively score the engine's technology, fuel consumption, noise and ride comfort, and finally get the best ten. This review has a history of 21 years since 1994, and has a high reputation and influence worldwide. It also has certain guiding significance for our domestic consumers, because some of the award-winning engines will also be introduced into the domestic market.

The prerequisites for being among the ten best engines of Ward

① Limited to the engines installed on the models sold in North America;

② It must be a brand new or significantly improved engine that has landed in the US market within this year;

③ The starting price of the models equipped with these engines shall not exceed 61,000 US dollars (the upper limit was 60,000 US dollars last year), which means that the engines of expensive super sports cars such as Ferrari and Lamborghini will not be included in the selection.

□ Note: After reading the list of candidates, what may make you wonder is that none of the candidates in the list are engines of Volkswagen Group. This is because Volkswagen’s “emission gate” incident in the United States this year rejected it by “Ward's AutoWorld” magazine. In addition, the qualification for the award was cancelled.

2016 Ward's top ten engines final list

5.2L naturally aspirated V8 engine Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 2.0T turbocharged horizontally opposed four-cylinder engine Subaru WRX 2.0T turbocharged + supercharged four-cylinder engine Volvo XC90 T6 3.0T turbocharged inline 6-cylinder engine BMW 340i 3.0T turbocharged V6 diesel engine Dodge RAM 1500 EcoDiesel 1.5L naturally aspirated four-cylinder engine + 111kW electric motor (extended range hybrid) Chevrolet's new Volanda 1.8L naturally aspirated four-cylinder engine +53kW electric motor (hybrid) Toyota new Prius 2.0L naturally aspirated four-cylinder engine +50kW electric motor (plug-in hybrid) Hyundai Sonata 9 plug-in hybrid version

Nissan 3.5L naturally aspirated V6 engine

After many years, we have seen Nissan's VQ series engines on the list of the Ward Top Ten Engine Awards. You must know that from the beginning of the Ward Top Ten Engine Awards to 2008, the VQ series engines have been on the list for 14 consecutive times. The award platform of Ward's top ten can be described as an evergreen tree in the list of winners. Today, this improved Nissan (code-named VQ35DE) 3.5L naturally aspirated V6 engine, with the arrival of Nissan’s new generation of Maxima, once again appeared on the Ward Top Ten Award.

Nissan does not rely on so many years of experience for this award. 61% of the parts of the new VQ35DE engine have been redesigned, such as the intake system, valve train, piston, oil pan, three-way catalytic converter, etc. It has been improved on the original basis, so that it has better fuel economy and running smoothness, while the engine noise is also further reduced.

Nissan's research and development of the VQ series engine began in 1983. The original development concept originated from the “feather”, focusing on lightweight, high efficiency, and energy saving. Today, the VQ series engine that has achieved good results still continues this concept. The new engine improves its ride comfort and fuel economy by reducing friction loss, improving heat management, and increasing intake and exhaust efficiency. The editor of “Ward's AutoWorld” magazine measured the minimum fuel consumption of this engine on Nissan Sima at about 10.6L/100km. In addition, we can also see Nissan's unremitting pursuit of noise control through the redesigned oil pan.

One sentence comment:

Ward's top ten veterans have once again won the favor of Americans this year.

Universal 3.6L naturally aspirated V6 engine

This brand new 3.6L V6 naturally aspirated engine awarded by GM is the latest generation of 3.6L V6 engine product, code-named “LGX”. This is the first time it has been awarded the award platform for Ward's top ten engines. It has been optimized and adjusted on the basis of the previous generation 3.6L V6 engine product (code-named “LFX”), and optimized in terms of power output and engine NVH performance. The winning engines are equipped with Cadillac ATS and Chevrolet Camaro. The LGX engine torque output of the two cars is slightly different. The 3.6L engine of the Chevrolet Camaro has a maximum power of 340 horsepower/6800rpm and a peak torque of 385 N·m/5300rpm; the 3.6L engine of the Cadillac ATS has a maximum power of 340 Horsepower/6800rpm, peak torque of 386 N·m/5300rpm.

Comparison of two general 3.6L V6 naturally aspirated engine parameters
Engine code LGX LFX
Cylinder arrangement form V-shaped 6-cylinder V-shaped 6-cylinder
Bore×Stroke (mm) 95.0×85.8 94.0×85.6
Compression ratio 11.5 11.5
Maximum power (horsepower/rpm) 340/6800 309/6800
Maximum torque (N·m/rpm) 385/5300 (Overseas version of Chevrolet Camaro)
or
386/5300 (Overseas version of Cadillac ATS)
358/5200 (Overseas version of Cadillac XTS)

In terms of NVH optimization, the engine uses a new camshaft drive system, so that its noise control under idling speed and low load conditions is better than Cadillac's benchmark object set for itself-the Infiniti VQ37 series engine. Currently, this engine is produced at the Romulus plant in Michigan, USA. The tax on domestic models equipped with large-displacement engines is higher, and the possibility of domestic production is unlikely.

One sentence comment:

Entry-level large-displacement naturally aspirated engines may allow more American consumers to feel their charm.

●Ford 5.2L V8 naturally aspirated engine

In the annual Ward ten best engine selection, Americans who have always loved the V8 engine will naturally not let them miss this award. Although there is a wave of small-displacement turbines around the world, the unique charm of the V8 is definitely Make every car fan excited. In this award last year, two U.S. V8 engines won the award, and this year, the Ford 5.2-liter V8 naturally aspirated engine mounted on the new Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 impressed all Ward judges.

Ford 5.2L naturally aspirated V8 engine
Maximum power 533Ps/7500rpm
Maximum torque 582N·m/4750rpm
Displacement 5163mL
Power per liter 103.2Ps/L
Compression ratio 12.0:1
Unique technology PTWA plasma arc process inner wall spraying technology, horizontal included angle crankshaft

With the launch of the new Mustang, Ford once again demonstrated its extraordinary strength in the field of civilian sports cars, and the entry displacement reached 2.3 liters in one breath. Although the engine output is still considerable, this is for every muscle car fan. I believe that the “four-cylinder Mustang” will always be just a cost-effective “artifact for picking up girls”. A real muscle car must require a V8 heart to be enough. So, if you feel that the Mustang GT can't satisfy you, let the new Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 complete this glorious mission and rediscover the glorious years of the year.

Speaking of the heart of this Mustang Shelby GT350, Americans who have never liked breaking the “traditional V8 concept” seem to have new ideas. Ford named this newly built V8 engine “Voodoo”, and this engine is not only very impressive in terms of data, but also in the way of technical realization is absolutely different from that of many car companies.

Ford uses the Ford 5.0-liter Coyote V8 engine (the engine on the Ford Mustang GT), which has won the Ward Awards for two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). It has not only upgraded the displacement, but also used this traditional V8. The new cylinder wall coating technology (officially called Plasma Transfer Wire Arc plasma arc process inner wall spraying technology) is used above. This technical purpose is to refurbish the engine and rejuvenate the old V8. Its advantage is that it can not only strengthen the cylinder The hardness and wear resistance of the inner wall can therefore replace the cylinder liner design. All these measures have made this Voodoo engine a weight reduction of nearly 20% compared to the previous Coyote. Changing the 90° crankshaft of the traditional American V8 and replacing it with a 180° flat crankshaft that can ignite symmetrically, the red line speed broke the 8000rpm mark in one fell swoop, reaching 8250rpm.

In addition, in order to retain the feeling of the traditional American V8, this engine still uses natural aspiration and manifold injection, and to a certain extent restores the sound of the American V8 muscle car, it is replaced with a unequal long row. Gas; Ford tuned it to 533Ps horsepower, that is to say, this is a self-priming EFI engine with a power of over 100 liters, and due to the strengthening of the inner wall of the cylinder, this “Voodoo” engine still has room for continued modification; With a 6-speed manual transmission, this V8 engine allowed Mustang to regain the “American Dream” and at the same time made many Ward judges hooked.

One sentence comment:

Regaining the American Dream, this time the Mustang has acted as a “time machine.”

●Subaru 2.0T horizontally opposed engine

In this selection of Ward's ten best engines, the FA20F horizontally opposed 4-cylinder turbocharged engine equipped on Subaru's new WRX is the same as Subaru's performance in the rally field, which was praised by all Ward judges.

Speaking of Subaru, fans and friends will surely think of two terms and an event at the first time: level facing, symmetrical four-wheel drive and WRC rally. Indeed, the outstanding performance on the rally field made the Subaru Impreza a blockbuster, and it also made the horizontally opposed engine and the symmetrical four-wheel drive synonymous with Subaru. And this generation of new Subaru WRX not only inherits the horizontally opposed classic layout, but also has an exciting price (starting at $28,895 in North America, equivalent to more than 186,000 yuan), lower fuel consumption and stronger The power output makes it a high-performance toy for off the track on weekends, but also a good partner for daily transportation and weekend outings.

Subaru 2.0T horizontally opposed engine (assembled in the new Subaru WRX)
Maximum power 272Ps/5600rpm
Maximum torque 350N·m/2000-5200rpm
Displacement 1998mL
Bore 86mm
stroke 86mm
Compression ratio 10.6:1
Unique technology

Horizontally opposed cylinder layout, dual-scroll turbocharging

This Subaru 2.0T horizontally opposed engine, code-named FA20F, may not be very familiar to many domestic readers, but if you talk about the FA20D equipped with Toyota 86 and Subaru BRZ, its power output characteristics can definitely be regarded as good Good works. Indeed, in short, FA20F is a high power output assembly based on FA20D by installing a turbocharger and eliminating the manifold injection in the hybrid injection. The result of this combination made the Ward judges give such a satisfactory evaluation: “More efficient and energy-saving power output and fuel economy will bring you more surprises on the weekend.”

As the judges said, maybe this new Subaru WRX is missing a bit of wildness, but from the perspective of current car development, horizontally opposed + direct injection + turbocharging, the new Subaru WRX customers think that this is the case. The combination of “Science and Technology” is the best combination of sports and practicality. From a fighter machine to a sexy steel cannon for daily commuting, there is no shortage of sports. The feeling of “technology changes life” is really charming, not only more practical, but It is a heritage of the classics. The Ward judges believe that this engine is not only a tribute to the classics, but also a satisfactory answer to the future.

One sentence comment:

Once again on the podium, Subaru relied on the perfect balance of performance and practicality.

Volvo 2.0T turbocharged engine

After ending the “marriage life” with Ford before, Volvo had to use the old inline 5-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines for a period of time. After several years of research and development, Volvo launched a new Drive-E series four in 2013. Cylinder engine. From then on, down to the V40, up to the newly released XC90, the new powertrain can be seen on them. This set of powertrain left a deep impression on the judges of Ward's top ten. Following last year's T5, this year's powertrain equipped with the T6 2.0T engine on the replacement XC90 topped the list.

Volvo Drive-E series T6 engine parameters
engine model
Displacement (mL) 1969
Engine form In-line four-cylinder, supercharged + turbocharged
Fuel supply method In-cylinder direct injection
Bore×Stroke (mm) 82.0×93.2
Maximum power 320Ps (235kW)/5700rpm
Maximum torque 400N·m/2200-5400rpm
Compression ratio 10.3:1

Previously, at the rear of Volvo models, you can often see T5 and T6 logos, which represent the number of cylinders of the engine. On the new Drive-E, they represent the power level. Last year, the T5 engine was recognized by the judges. This year, the T6 engine with a supercharger added to the T5 turbocharged engine was favored by the judges.

One sentence comment:

From “T6” to “T6”, Americans did not care about Volvo's word games. The turbo + mechanical double supercharged four-cylinder engine can still meet their definition of luxury SUV.

BMW 3.0T turbocharged engine

For some people, feelings are an important reason for them to buy the same product. For Bimmer, when a BMW engine has an inline 6-cylinder over its head, it is no longer a question of whether to buy it or not. Among the judges of Ward's top ten engine awards, many people have such feelings, not to mention that compared with the “big brother” N55, it is indeed a lot more diligent. So, is there any problem with it being on this year's list?

BMW 3.0L turbocharged engine parameters
engine model B58
Displacement 2998mL
Intake form Turbocharged
Fuel supply method In-cylinder direct injection
Maximum power 326Ps (240kW) 5200-6500rpm
Maximum torque 450N·m

In 2009, BMW was equipped with the N55B30 engine for the first time on the 535i GT model with chassis number F07, and now the B58 engine that succeeded it has begun to debut. The change from N to B in the name shows the change in BMW's engine development thinking. In the development of the new generation of B58 engines, BMW has begun to apply the modular development concept.

The N55 engine, which has been effective for many years, can be described as a classic. As the successor of the B58 engine, it is even more difficult to do better. Therefore, BMW has not introduced too many refreshing technologies on the B58 engine, but only based on the classics. perfect.

Technical innovation alone is not enough to impress the picky Ward Top Ten Selection Committee. For them, the match of this inline 6-cylinder engine with the 8-speed automatic transmission from ZF is a natural fit. On the new 340i, the two work together to increase the vehicle from standstill to 96km/h in 4.6 seconds. More importantly, the sound of this inline 6-cylinder engine brought the judges to the judges during the acceleration and deceleration. This is called a pleasant feeling. The harmonious combination of the two made the judges give an evaluation such as “I think their combination exceeds the fun of manual transmission.”

One sentence comment:

The in-line 6-cylinder engine is like the “kidneys” of the front of the car, which is BMW's unchanging accumulation. The right inheritance and innovation are essential skills for a luxury brand.

Dodge 3.0T turbocharged V6 diesel engine

The Dodge 3.0T turbocharged V6 diesel engine not only has the inherent high torque characteristics of diesel engines, but also its biggest highlight in terms of fuel economy. The fuel consumption per 100 kilometers on the Dodge Ram 1500 is only 9.8L. Its strength, which won the Ward Top Ten Engine Award for two consecutive years, cannot be underestimated.

Dodge 3.0T turbocharged V6 diesel engine
Cylinder layout V-shaped 6-cylinder
Compression ratio 16.5:1
Maximum power (horsepower/rpm) 243/2000-4000
Maximum torque (N·m) 569

To quote the judges of Ward's Top Ten Engine Awards, “The engineers matched this engine with the Ram 1500 perfectly, so that most people would not guess that the hidden diesel engine in the engine compartment was a perfect match.” Visible. The judges were full of praise for the smoothness of this 3.0T turbocharged V6 diesel engine.

One sentence comment:

Volkswagen's “emission gate” incident has made Americans more convinced of their country's diesel engine technology.

Universal 1.5L naturally aspirated four-cylinder engine + 111 kilowatt electric motor (extended range hybrid)

The second-generation Chevrolet Volanda has been launched overseas. The most obvious upgrade of the car is that the pure electric cruising range has increased from 61 kilometers in the first-generation Volanda to 85 kilometers in the second-generation model. The result of the increase in pure electric cruising range is to reduce the overall fuel consumption of the vehicle, especially when users often use the vehicle in plug-in mode. The judges of Ward's top ten engines achieved an actual fuel consumption score of 5.3L per 100 kilometers in a 365-kilometer road test (only one charge). It is also mentioned in the official information that the new Chevrolet Volanda can achieve a cruising range of 676 kilometers (420 miles) when it is fully charged and full.

Comparison of the parameters of the two-generation Chevrolet Volanda hybrid power system
Model Second-generation Chevrolet Volanda The first generation Chevrolet Volanda
Maximum output power of electric motor (kw/horsepower) 111/151 111/151
Motor maximum output torque (N·m) 398 370
Pure electric cruising range (km) 85 61
Battery pack capacity (kWh) 18.4 16
Extended range engine 101 hp 1.5L inline four-cylinder naturally aspirated engine 84 horsepower 1.4L inline four-cylinder naturally aspirated engine

The performance of the second-generation Volanda hybrid system has been improved in all aspects. Among them, the extended-range engine adopts GM's latest small-displacement gasoline engine family product, which has good performance in terms of fuel efficiency and NVH performance; the increase in motor torque output makes the car's speed-up performance a certain improvement; battery pack The most direct benefit of the increase in capacity is to increase the pure electric cruising range of the vehicle and reduce the overall fuel consumption of the hybrid power system. On the whole, the hybrid system of the second-generation Volanda is an upgraded and improved version of the previous generation, and the performance of the entire hybrid system is improved by optimizing the main components. Better performance than the previous generation models, and lower overall fuel consumption is also an important reason for the hybrid system to be recognized by the judges.

One sentence comment:

In an environment where new energy power is becoming more and more intense, the renewed Volanda is exactly the American expression of future trends.

Toyota Prius Hybrid System

The clean diesel technology advocated by Volkswagen in North America has had to postpone the process of expanding its territory due to exposure to emissions fraud. The butterfly effect caused by this has caused people to realize that hybrid power is more suitable as a technology for the transition from cars to pure electric vehicles. And Toyota's advantage in the field of strong mixing has been further magnified. Of course, its own evolution is also showing the world the feasibility of hybrid power at this stage. This time, the Toyota Prius impressed the judges. The performance of this car has attracted more votes for the Toyota hybrid system.

The first thing to say is that Toyota’s hybrid system is no longer a new technology. The latest Prius model has been developed to the fourth generation. The world’s first mass-produced hybrid model that was launched in China in 2006 is even with The domestically produced attitude enters the Chinese market, but because it exceeds its external pricing, this hybrid model only has a reputation. Overseas, as stated at the beginning of the article, although people have realized the importance of alternative energy sources, no matter who they are, they are more willing to use diesel engines as the best transition technology, but now, people don't think so.

Volkswagen’s collective fall in this Ward selection was as expected. Therefore, the “exit” of those engines that were regarded as winning generals in the past also gave other brands opportunities, while hybrids completely replaced small displacements. The location of the diesel engine.

Toyota Prius Hybrid System Parameters
engine model 2ZR-FXE
Displacement 1797mL
Intake form inhale naturally
Maximum engine power 98Ps(72kW)/5200rpm
Engine torque 142N·m/3600rpm
Motor power 53kW

The thermal efficiency of the fourth-generation hybrid system has reached 40%. Before that, we have never understood why Toyota should put more energy into the development of electric systems and new power technologies such as fuel cells. In internal combustion engine technology that is considered difficult to break through the bottleneck? Now you should understand that this is actually derived from the infinite vision of hybrid technology.

A large part of the improvement in thermal efficiency comes from the 1.8L engine. Compared with the previous generation, the thermal efficiency has increased by 28%. The setting that focuses on the Atkinson cycle itself is in line with a hybrid vehicle with strong hybrid positioning. The engine does not need to be like a traditional car. Use a large speed change to meet the needs of the car under different working conditions. In most of the time, all it has to do is to maintain the most economical speed to keep powering the motor. Of course, when driving at low speeds and when the power is sufficient , Does not need the engine to have power output.

Higher thermal efficiency means more fuel economy, but this is by no means all that it wins. In terms of driving experience, it must also be recognized by a group of judges. At this level, it is this product positioning. The judges will definitely not put harsh considerations on handling and power. Then, ride comfort has become the focus of everyone's attention. Will the switching of the power path affect the driving experience? Obviously, everyone is very satisfied.

Some judges said, “At the moment the engine is started, there is almost no change in vibration and smoothness. This is due to the close cooperation between the engine and the motor.” This is only half of the truth. The performance and the coordination ability of the entire system ensure the smooth connection of power, but in fact, when the engine is not involved in work, the crank and connecting rod mechanism of the engine is also running with the timing system, in other words, the piston is also working With reciprocating motion, it’s just that the fuel injector does not supply fuel to the cylinder. In this way, the engine speed can be basically synchronized with the motor speed. When the engine is required to intervene, the engine mount and each connecting bushing Able to filter limited vibration. The result is that the people in the car can't feel what's happening behind them, and can only tell by the sound that the engine seems to have started.

One sentence comment:

Regardless of excellent ride comfort, a thermal efficiency of 40% cannot be achieved by any manufacturer.

Hyundai Sonata PHEV plug-in hybrid system

When it comes to new energy vehicles, Korean car brands will definitely not appear in the top few of your list, but you don’t know it. Just when Toyota and Honda started to convert fuel cell models from concept vector production, Hyundai The FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle) has already been sold in the US market. In the same year, it also won the Ward Top Ten Award. This year, the newly launched Sonata nine plug-in hybrid model won another Ward Top Ten award for Hyundai.

Hyundai Sonata PHEV plug-in hybrid system
Maximum horsepower of gasoline engine 156Ps/6000rpm
Maximum torque of gasoline engine 190N·m/5000rpm
Compression ratio 13.5:1
Oil supply form In-cylinder direct injection
Unique technology D-CVVT variable timing valve
Motor power 50kW (68Ps)/2330-3300rpm
Motor torque 205N·m/0-1770rpm
Maximum output horsepower of hybrid system* 205Ps/6000rpm

*Note: Since the output of the internal combustion engine and the electric motor are different from the speed range, the maximum output horsepower of the hybrid power system is not simply the sum of the maximum values.

The Sonata nine plug-in hybrid model is equipped with a 2.0L naturally aspirated direct injection engine, which is also the Nu series engine that we are familiar with. Compared with the Volanda and Prius, this displacement is slightly larger. Indeed, for a product that is positioned as a mid-size car, it must have the performance it should have in terms of power. Combined with a 68-horsepower motor, this power system can release a maximum of 202 horsepower. In fact, from this setting, we can basically infer that its hybrid structure has taken a completely different technical route from Volanda and Prius.

The power system of the Sonata 9 plug-in hybrid is still based on the traditional engine and gearbox. The 68Ps (50kW) motor is integrated between the engine and the 6-speed automatic gearbox. This 6AT gearbox is Hyundai Group's Hyundai Provided by Mobis. Before that, Great Wall also asked them to buy a batch of 6AT gearboxes used on the horizontal platform to be assembled on the Haval H2.

In the pure electric mode, the battery with a capacity of 9.8kWh can support the vehicle to travel 43km. In addition, when the vehicle starts or when passing through congested road conditions, more electric motors will be used for driving, so that the least economical part of the engine can be omitted. Working conditions. The charging process of this system is also very practical. In the state of high voltage, that is, when using a standard charging pile for charging (charging voltage is 240V), the battery can be fully charged in 2 and a half hours, and the on-board charging is used. It takes 5 hours to fully charge the device (charging voltage is 120V).

In the selection of new energy, this year Ward awarded all the awards to hybrid models. It can be said that Ward is basically consistent with the domestic market in terms of understanding of the development trend of new energy next year, and these three vehicles It also has an inseparable connection with the domestic market, especially the Sonata nine plug-in hybrid model, which will enter China in Beijing Hyundai next year in a domestically produced way. This is also a model that we are looking forward to. In addition, the country and the country will enter China next year. The adjustment of subsidies for new energy vehicles by various local governments, I believe, this vehicle will also receive more attention.

One sentence comment:

Compared with the more extreme hybrid technology, optimization on the basis of traditional engines will be more down-to-earth.

● Summary

The overall “ban” of the Volkswagen Group this year may have affected the results of Ward's Top Ten Engine Awards to some extent, but it is not a major factor. It can be seen from the ten award-winning engines that the number of naturally aspirated engines and turbocharged engines is almost the same, changing the situation where turbocharging dominated last year. The reason why the naturally aspirated engine was again recognized by the judges may be because the U.S. oil prices continued to fall this year, which once again awakened Americans’ enthusiasm for large-displacement naturally-aspirated engines; perhaps because the judges believed that small-displacement turbocharging cannot It represents the unique plot of the American nation; or maybe it's just because there were too many awards for turbocharged engines last year.

In addition, by observing the three award-winning hybrid systems, you will find that these three winners represent the three directions of hybrid power today. The Hyundai Sonata 9 plug-in hybrid version represents the direction of plug-in hybrid power, the hybrid system of Chevrolet Volanda represents the direction of extended-range hybrid power, and the hybrid system of Toyota Prius represents its own unique petrol-electricity Hybrid direction. In short, the results of the three pillars of natural aspiration, turbocharging, and hybrid power are more in line with today's automotive engine technology trends in the US market. As a Chinese consumer, the top ten engines selected by the American “Ward's Auto World” magazine are also of reference significance. For example, the modern plug-in hybrid power system, one of the top ten engines of this year, is likely to appear on the domestic Sonata Nine next year. In view of Beijing’s license policy, it may be a problem for consumers who are hard to find. One more choice, isn't it? (Auto House Text/Picture Technology and Design Channel)