[YesAuto Technology] At present, the country has certain policy preferences for new energy vehicles, such as not participating in lottery lottery (or participating in lottery alone, but the chance of winning the lottery is relatively high), car purchase subsidies, and so on. Although the sales share of new energy vehicles is still small at this stage, this does not hinder its growth. At the same time, there are also some relevant technical parameters for new energy vehicles that need consumers to understand and recognize.
In the classification of car models in the product library of Autohome, new energy vehicles are mainly divided into two categories: electric and gasoline-electric hybrid. The gasoline-electric hybrid category is further divided into gasoline-electric hybrid, plug-in hybrid and extended-range hybrid. Three types of power. Let me first take the Prius as an example to introduce the four related parameters of the motor part in the parameter configuration table (see the following table). On the second page, I will talk about the differences between the several new energy vehicles and the main representative models.
● Maximum motor power (unit: kW)
Simply put, we can completely treat the electric motor as a conventional internal combustion engine, so it also has two important parameters-maximum power and maximum torque. Maximum power refers to the maximum power output that an electric motor can achieve. This concept is similar to an engine, but the electric motor has its own power output characteristics.
The electric motor is a machine with high energy conversion efficiency. Compared with the 30% working efficiency of the internal combustion engine, the electric motor is usually above 85%, and the greater the power, the higher the working efficiency, and the efficiency of a large motor can even reach 98 %.
● Maximum torque of motor (unit: N·m)
This concept is also similar to the maximum torque of the engine. The maximum torque of the motor is not only related to the speed of the motor but also to the power. The biggest feature of the electric motor is the strong torque at low speed. Based on this, in the hybrid power system, when the vehicle starts or accelerates rapidly, the electric motor can play a role in assisting and compensating for the power characteristics of the engine, thereby improving the vehicle’s performance. Speed up performance.
●The battery supports the maximum cruising range (unit: km)
For pure electric vehicles, moderate and heavy hybrid vehicles, and extended-range vehicles, they all involve a cruising range in pure electric drive mode. The cruising range is mainly related to the battery capacity. The battery capacity is higher. Big, long cruising range. However, in actual situations, due to the influence of the external environment (especially the temperature) and the use of air conditioners and electrical equipment, the cruising range is usually lower than the maximum cruising range marked by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology or the manufacturer.
At the same time, in the latest version of the new energy vehicle subsidy policy in 2014, the subsidy is also classified according to the mileage of the new energy vehicle (see the table below for details).
|2013 vs. 2014 new energy subsidies (the subsidy standard rate is reduced by 5%)|
|Vehicle Type||Pure electric driving range R (condition)|
| Pure electric passenger car
|RMB 35,000/vehicle||50,000 yuan/vehicle||60,000 yuan/vehicle||—|
| Pure electric passenger car
|33,250 yuan/vehicle||47,500 yuan/vehicle||57 million yuan/vehicle||—|
|Plug-in hybrid passenger cars including extended range (2013)||—||—||—||RMB 35,000/vehicle|
|Plug-in hybrid passenger vehicles including extended range (2014)||—||—||—||33,250 yuan/vehicle|
● Battery capacity (unit: kWh)
Battery capacity is exactly how much energy is stored in a battery pack. We use kWh to measure its unit. 1kWh is what we often call the energy of 1 kilowatt-hour. At present, the battery capacity of ordinary pure electric vehicles in China is usually around 20kWh, so its cruising range is only more than 100 kilometers, while the battery pack capacity of the 85 and P85 models of Tesla-MODEL S has reached 85kWh. So its cruising range can reach more than 400 kilometers.
MODEL S 2014 Model 85
For hybrid models, the capacity of the battery pack is relatively smaller. At the same time, according to the degree of hybrid power, the capacity of the battery pack will be different. Generally speaking, according to the battery capacity, ordinary oil-electric hybrid<plug-in Type mixing<Incremental program mixing.
Pure electric vehicles are new energy vehicles that use electric energy as the only source of power. Due to the current bottleneck in the development of battery capacity technology and taking into account factors such as the internal space of the vehicle, the maximum cruising range of this type of vehicle is usually less than 200 kilometers (in actual use) It may be lower), and charging is not convenient, so pure electric vehicles are not attractive to ordinary consumers at present, and they are more used for taxis or as short-distance shuttle buses. Representative models include SAIC Roewe E50, Brilliance BMW-Zinoro 1E, etc.
Roewe E50 2013 basic model
Oil-electric hybrid power refers to a new energy vehicle that has both a traditional internal combustion engine and an electric motor as its power. Generally, the battery pack capacity of this vehicle is small, and it can only travel a few kilometers in pure electric mode. The electric motor is more used for Auxiliary engine, especially when the vehicle starts and accelerates rapidly, while the electric motor is also used for kinetic energy recovery. Representative models include BMW 7-series hybrid, Mercedes-Benz S-class hybrid, and FAW Toyota-Prius.
BMW 7 Series 2013 740Li Hybrid Edition
Mercedes-Benz S-Class 2014 S400L HYBRID
Prius 2012 1.8L Luxury Advanced Edition
The plug-in hybrid power adds an interface for charging the battery pack on the basis of hybrid oil and electricity. At the same time, the battery pack capacity of this model is also larger. The maximum cruising range in pure electric mode is generally more than 20 kilometers. If you travel for a short distance, you can rely entirely on electricity, and you can charge it through a charging pile. At the same time, the existence of a gasoline engine also takes into account the needs of long-distance driving. It can be said that plug-in hybrid is a heavy hybrid vehicle, that is, the electric energy system accounts for a larger proportion. Representative models include BYD-Qin (for detailed technical interpretation, please click here) and Roewe 550 Plug-in models.
Qin 2014 1.5T flagship
Roewe 550 2014 550 Plug-in Flagship Edition
——Extended Range Hybrid
Extended-range hybrid power also has an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. When the battery pack is fully charged, the vehicle will run on pure electric power. When the battery is insufficient, the engine will start to work. It should be noted that the internal combustion engine does not directly drive the vehicle here. It is used to charge the battery pack, that is, relying on the electric energy provided by the engine to make an “extended range” effect, thereby extending the driving range from tens of kilometers of pure electric to about 400 kilometers, realizing the cruising range of conventional power models. The representative model is Volt.
Volt 2012 basic model
Although the same is hybrid, the extended-range model is slightly different from the ordinary hybrid model in terms of the connection between the electric motor and the internal combustion engine. For detailed technical interpretation, please click “Electric? Hybrid? What exactly is Chevrolet VOLT? “.
to sum up:
Several technical parameters related to electric motors in new energy vehicles are actually very well understood. Maximum power and maximum torque are similar to internal combustion engines, but large torque is the strength of electric motors, which is indeed very similar to the characteristics of diesel engines. The maximum cruising range supported by the battery is closely related to the battery capacity, and the larger the battery capacity, the higher the degree of hybrid power of this car. Looking at new energy vehicles at this stage, pure electric vehicles seem to be too far away from ordinary consumers, while Japanese manufacturers, represented by Toyota, are actively developing and promoting hybrid vehicles, and their technical accumulation and experience in this area are indeed true. Relatively mature and reliable. I think that before the breakthrough in battery technology, hybrid models can be said to be the best choice for both fuel economy and cruising range.