[YesAuto Car Tan Meng Material] They are magical and omnipotent. They are Transformers at the scene of crisis and superheroes who save people from fire and water. Their names are fire trucks. At this time last year, we brought you real shots of Beijing fire trucks. These cars are all tall and mighty images, but in the world of fire trucks, there are still some “little characters”. Today we will Come and learn about them.
Note: This article discusses models that are directly put into fire fighting. Personnel transportation and command vehicles are beyond the scope of discussion.
As shown in the previous real shot articles, our general impression of fire trucks is this: Scania, Mercedes-Benz, Sinotruk and other heavy truck chassis are loaded with a water tank of 10 or 20 tons, or It is a thirty to fifty-meter ladder, or hundreds of rescue equipment. However, because of their huge size, these mainstream fire trucks have many inconveniences in reality.
First of all, many old communities, especially European cities that are hundreds of years old, did not even consider that there would be dozens of tons of trucks in the world when they were built. It is very difficult for heavy fire trucks to enter and exit in such places. ; In addition, for small fire stations owned by enterprises or communities, it is not realistic to maintain a large fire truck.
So there is our protagonist today-a small fire truck. The national conditions of each country are different, and the small fire trucks are also different. What's interesting is that these small fire trucks perfectly reflect the local traffic and vehicle environment. Let's take a look!
In the Chinese auto market, there is a “sacred car” called Wuling Hongguang, and it is undoubtedly a pickup truck that is worthy of the name of the “American sacred car”. Over the years, no matter how popular your Japanese cars are and how popular SUVs are, you can only fight for the fourth position in the US car sales list, and the top three will always be Ford pickups, Chevrolet pickups and Dodge pickups.
There is no doubt that pickup trucks have penetrated into all aspects of American life, so when they wanted a car as a platform for small fire trucks, pickup trucks were the first choice. Most of the American fire trucks have chassis and tops produced by the same company, but pickup trucks are an exception. They are all made by fire-fighting equipment manufacturers who purchase mature pickup truck chassis and transform them.
In our opinion, the Ford F-150 and F-250 pickup trucks are definitely big men, but in the F-series pickup truck family, they can only be regarded as a “little brother”, so the F-150 and F-250 fire trucks are basically both They mainly transport materials, and most of them do not have too professional fire-fighting equipment.
Compared with the “little brother” F-150, the “big brothers” of the Ford F pickup truck family are much more professional. From F-350 and F-450 to F-550 and F-650, they can all sell chassis separately Part, so each has a professional fire truck version, of which F-550 has the largest number. Although it is much more robust than ordinary passenger cars, it is after all smaller than mainstream fire trucks. Therefore, this type of pickup truck is called “Mini Pumper” in the United States.
The cabins of mini fire trucks are mostly double-row seats, so that in addition to the driver, three or four firefighters can be accommodated. After the passenger seat has been modified, it can be embedded with an air breathing apparatus (SCBA), allowing firefighters to wear the breathing apparatus in the car, and set off with the breathing apparatus directly on their back when getting off the car, saving valuable rescue time.
In the upper part, behind the cabin of a pickup truck is often a bright chrome-plated panel. On the panel are various interfaces and meters of the water supply system. The entire panel is directly exposed, which belongs to the consistent style of American fire trucks. In addition to the external water source, the mini fire truck will also have water tanks ranging from 300 to 500 gallons (approximately 1.1 to 1.9 tons). Behind the water supply system panel is a square cargo hold. The width of the cargo hold is often a little bit longer than the passenger cabin. Inside the rolling door are water pipes and various demolition and rescue equipment.
In the mini fire trucks in the United States, there is also a professional category, which is the Wildland fire engine (commonly known as Brush Truck). Because they need to go deep into the field, the size of this type of field fire truck is smaller than that in the city, and most of them are equipped with a four-wheel drive system to improve passing performance.
Due to the different situations to be dealt with, the field fire truck is also different from the general city fire truck. Demolition rescue equipment is more often replaced with logging equipment, and water pumps and water pipes have become the most important equipment on the vehicle. At present, the National Forestry Fire Coordination Organization of the United States has formulated standards that divide the field fire trucks into multiple levels, and have made corresponding requirements for water tank capacity, water pump pressure and flow.
There are many old cities in Europe and narrow roads. The not-so-wide roads in cities and villages here are filled with a kind of commercial vehicles that do not have a high sense of existence but are indispensable, which are vans. These cars are omnipotent in pulling people and cargo, and are roughly equivalent to the domestic gold cup. The brands are mainly Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Ford and Iveco.
Vans can also provide practical loading space under the premise of limited body size, so they have become the preferred platform for light fire trucks. It should be noted that although we call these commercial vehicles vans, they are not only van-shaped. For example, the light fire trucks from Magirus in Germany are trucks built on the chassis of Iveco’s Daily trucks. Many of Rosenbauer's compact fire trucks use Mercedes-Benz Spint vans directly.
Although the fire truck based on the van is very compact compared to the main battle vehicle in the city, it also has extremely professional equipment inside. Take Luxemburgo’s CL series compact fire truck as an example, its member cabin is also double-row seats, and the rear seats are also professional SCBA seats, which are seats with self-contained air breathing apparatus embedded in the backrest. In order to use the space as much as possible, the space under the seat will also be “stolen” to hold water hoses and other equipment.
Behind the passenger compartment is the equipment space, and you can see the fire-fighting equipment inside by opening the rolling shutter door that allows quick access to items. The content of the equipment compartment is customized according to the needs of each fire brigade, but in general it is nothing more than fire hoses, hose connections, and equipment for demolition, search and rescue, and lighting. Since most of these fire trucks only have a 500L water tank, the water pump is also an indispensable equipment.
The roof should not be wasted either. On the roof of these vans, the indispensable must be a retractable fire-fighting ladder. In addition, the roof itself is also designed in the shape of a storage tank, which can also be used to fix some less commonly used equipment, such as replacement insulation clothing.
In fact, the fire truck with a van chassis is not the smallest in Europe. There is also an electric fire truck. Its chassis is a Goupil electric truck. This is a miniature vehicle used in gardens, sanitation and engineering. It has been transformed into Although there is not much space behind the fire truck, it still has a look. For example, although the seat is very simple, it is the simplest SCBA seat to use an air respirator as the backrest.
Due to historical reasons, most of the emergency vehicles in Japan belong to the fire department, which objectively improves Japan's firefighting and first aid linkage capabilities, and also gave birth to a special type of vehicle-fire emergency vehicles, referred to as rescue vehicles. We all know that fire trucks are red, emergency vehicles are white, and rescue vehicles are red and white.
In terms of vehicle models, most rescue vehicles use light-truck chassis that is much smaller than the main battle fire truck. In terms of structure, the rescue vehicle is divided into three parts. The first part is the cockpit, the rear cargo compartment has a fire compartment and an emergency compartment, and the latter two compartments are arranged in two ways.
The common one is the rear access type, that is, the fire-fighting equipment is in the front, the patient is behind, and the access is through the tailgate; another distinctive feature is the side access type, which means that the fire-fighting equipment is in the rear of the vehicle and the patient is in the middle. The stretcher enters and exits the body from the side. This style seems a bit strange, but the advantage is that the rear fire-fighting equipment compartment has left, right, and rear three operating surfaces, which is more convenient to operate.
Since it is necessary to implement the functions of two vehicles in one vehicle, the rescue vehicle naturally cannot meet high standards and strict requirements. In the fire equipment compartment, the rescue vehicle is mainly equipped with water pumps, hoses, and fire axes. Equipment; and the equipment in the emergency cabin cannot meet the Japanese mainstream “high-standard emergency vehicle” standard, and can only be equivalent to a quasi-high-standard emergency vehicle.
Compared with fire trucks, Japan has another fire truck with a more island-style style—light fire trucks, which are based on micro-face modification. The Japanese call this type of micro-vehicle K-car (K-car), which is why the light fire truck gets its name.
Due to the small size of the micro-face, there is no way to load too many equipment on the light fire truck, and even the rolling door is not very common, and all kinds of equipment are directly exposed. Generally speaking, you can see water pumps, hoses, and a very thick pipe on light fire trucks, which are used to draw water from fire-fighting reservoirs or ponds. Due to body size, it is unlikely that a large water tank will be installed on this type of car.
It is worth mentioning that the light fire truck also has two rows of seats like most fire trucks, but in addition to directly designing the cabin into two rows, there is also a design to increase the equipment space. The cabin has only one row, and the rear firefighters need Sit in a temporary seat in the open air. Fortunately, light fire trucks are usually only used in the community and don't need to drive too far.
With the development of the automobile industry, China's fire truck products are gradually enriched and professional. At present, my country has been able to produce almost all types of professional fire trucks. But to talk about the most distinctive fire truck in China, we still have to start with the most distinctive means of transportation on the streets of China:
According to media reports, in 2017, China produced more than 10 million electric tricycles. This does not include three-wheeled motorcycles and four-wheeled scooters. These vehicles are scattered in urban and rural areas and are owned by courier brothers, sanitation aunts, and self-employed operators. Important tool. What makes them so proud is their low price, small size and large capacity, and these advantages also make them the preferred platform for mini fire trucks.
Open Alibaba to search for “three-wheeled fire trucks”, and you will see a variety of Chinese version of mini fire trucks. Their platforms include traditional three-wheeled motorcycles and electric tricycles like courier trucks. Some four-wheel electric vehicles with old scooter fronts popped out. As for the price, a few thousand less and two to 30,000 yuan more are quite cheap.
Compared with the products of professional fire truck brands in Japan and Europe, domestic mini fire trucks seem to be in a state of “free growth”. The fire fighting equipment in the cargo compartments are some very professional and some are very simple. The rudimentary is just a shelf similar to a courier truck, which contains some fire extinguishers and fire hoses; the professional ones will install an extra water pump, the better ones will have a water tank, and some even have a vehicle-mounted water cannon.
Here is a statement. The three-wheeled fire engine does not seem to be as professional as those small fire engines in developed countries, but this is also determined by the national conditions of our country. We are indeed not so wealthy yet. In addition, miniature fire trucks are mainly used in communities to deal with initial fires. Many community vehicles in our country have many people and narrow roads. Three-wheeled fire trucks can just give full play to their flexibility and freedom of entry and exit. It is a weapon in fire fighting “street fighting”. .
Friends who have been to the island of Taiwan must be impressed by the army of motorcycles here. Everyone knows that there is a huge number of motorcycles here, but you may not know that there is also an army of fire-fighting motorcycles (two-wheeled) in Taiwan. It should be noted that the fire-fighting motorcycle mentioned here is not just a means of transporting firefighters to the scene, but a “combat-type” fire-fighting truck with fire-fighting equipment.
In fact, fire-fighting motorcycles are not only found in Taiwan, but also in the mainland and Japan in the east, but they are not as common as in Taiwan. A typical Taiwanese fire-fighting motorcycle has the following equipment: a tank filled with foam extinguishing agent, a pressurized device, and a water pipe of several tens of meters. Although firefighting motorcycles look a bit rudimentary, most of the above equipment is provided by professional firefighting equipment vendors such as Rosenbauer, which is still quite professional.
to sum up:
As mentioned earlier, most of the small fire trucks are “stationed” in the community, and their purpose is to eliminate the fire in the bud in the first time. Compared with large fire trucks, these small fire trucks can better reflect the characteristics of local vehicles and the traffic environment, which is also self-evident.
Compared with the small fire trucks in developed countries, the electric tricycles in our communities do seem to be a little unbelievable, but this is also determined by national conditions. After all, the best ones are suitable for them in terms of cost and utility. There is no irony in writing these, nor is it to slander Chinese firefighters, because what makes this profession so sacred is their protection of people's lives and property, not the tools they hold in their hands.